> There are different nursing theories and health theories to help us explain the phenomena we are experiencing in health.
> Since Nursing knowledge is the inclusive total of the philosophies, theories, research, and practice wisdom of the discipline, these theories define what nursing is or what sets it apart from different professions.
> Below is a shortlist of different health and nursing theories;
1 Abraham Maslow
2 Adolf Meyer
3 Alfred Adler
4 Anne Boykin & Savina Schoenhofer
5 Betty Neuman
6 Carl Jung
7 Dorothea Orem
8 Dorothy Johnson
9 Erik Erikson
10 Ernestine Wiedenbach
11 Faye Abdellah
12 Florence Nightingale
14 Harry Stack Sullivan
15 Hildegard Peplau
16 Ida Jean Orlando
17 Imogene King
18 Jean Piaget
19 Jean Watson
20 Lawrence Kohlberg
21 Madeleine Leininger
22 Margaret Newman
23 Martha Rogers
24 Myra Levine
25 Sigmund Freud
26 Sister Calista Roy
27 Virginia Henderson
1. ABRAHAM MASLOW
• Hierarchy of Needs
• Physiologic Needs: breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, homeostasis, excretion.
• Safety Needs: security of: body, employment, resources, morality, family, health, property.
• Love and Belonging Needs: friendship, sexual intimacy, family
• Esteem Needs: self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others, respect by others
• Self-actualization Needs: morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, lack of prejudice, acceptance of facts.
2. ADOLF MEYER
• Believes in totality of man or the holistic approach to man.
• Patients could best be understood through consideration of their life situations.
3. ALFRED ADLER
• Superiority and inferiority complex and birth order.
• He emphasized that one’s birth order as having an influence on the style of life and the strengths and weaknesses in one’s psychological make-up.
4. Anne Boykin & Savina Schoenhofer
• All persons are caring and nursing is a response to unique social call.
5. BETTY NEUMAN
• She developed the Health Care Systems Model.
• Nursing is concerned with all the variables affecting an individual’s response to stress, which are interpersonal, intrapersonal and extrapersonal in nature.
6. CARL JUNG
• Introversion and extroversion–persona
7. DOROTHEA OREM
• Developed self-care, self-care deficit and nursing systems theory.
• Nurses have to supply care when the patients cannot provide care to themselves.
• By measuring the clients deficit relative to self care needs.
8. DOROTHY JOHNSON
• Conceptualized the Behavioral Systems Model.
• Each person is composed of 7 subsystems namely: ingestive, eliminative, affiliative, aggressive, dependence, achievement and sexual.
• She also stated that nursing was “concerned with man as an integrated whole and this is the specific knowledge of order we require”.
9. ERIK ERIKSON
• Psychosocial development of man.
• Trust vs Mistrust, Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt, Initiative vs Guilt, Industry vs Inferiority, Identity vs Role Confusion, Intimacy vs Isolation, Generativity vs Stagnation, Ego Integrity vs Despair.
10. ERNESTINE WIEDENBACH
• Nurse’s individual philosophy lends credence to nursing care.
• Wiedenbach believed that there were 4 main elements to clinical nursing. They included: a philosophy, a purpose, a practice and the art.
11. FAYE ABDELLAH
• Defined nursing as a service to individuals and families, therefore to society.
• Identified 21 nursing problems;
> To promote good hygiene and physical comfort
> To promote optimal activity, exercise, rest, and sleep
> To promote safety through prevention of accidents, injury, or other trauma and through the prevention of the spread of infection
> To maintain good body mechanics and prevent and correct deformities
> To facilitate the maintenance of a supply of oxygen to all body cells
> To facilitate the maintenance of nutrition of all body cells
> To facilitate the maintenance of elimination
> To facilitate the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance
> To recognize the physiologic responses of the body to disease conditions
> To facilitate the maintenance of regulatory mechanisms and functions
> To facilitate the maintenance of sensory function
> To identify and accept positive and negative expressions, feelings, and reactions
> To identify and accept the interrelatedness of emotions and organic illness
> To facilitate the maintenance of effective verbal and nonverbal communication
> To promote the development of productive interpersonal relationships
> To facilitate progress toward achievement of personal spiritual goals
> To create and maintain a therapeutic environment
> To facilitate awareness of self as an individual with varying physical, emotional, and developmental needs
> To accept the optimum possible goals in light of physical and emotional limitations
> To use community resources as an aid in resolving problems arising from illness
> To understand the role of social problems as influencing factors in the cause of illness
12. FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE
• Environmental Theory.
• Focused on manipulating the environment for the patient’s recovery.
> Pure or fresh air
> Pure water
> Sufficient food supplies
> Efficient drainage
> Light (especially direct sunlight)
• Four temperaments
> sanguine personality is fairly extroverted.
> melancholic is a person who is a thoughtful ponderer.
> phlegmatic tends to be self-content and kind.
> choleric is a do-er.
14. HARRY STACK SULLIVAN
• Interpersonal theory and anxiety occurs due to poor interpersonal relationship.
15. HILDEGARD PEPLAU
• Interpersonal model. Nursing is an interpersonal process of therapeutic interactions between the sick and the nurse
16. IDA JEAN ORLANDO
• Believed that nurses can help patients meet a perceived need that they cannot meet themselves.
• Nursing Process theory.
17. IMOGENE KING
• Goal attainment theory
• Nursing is a helping profession
18. JEAN PIAGET
• Cognitive development theory
• Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, formal operations
19. JEAN WATSON
• Human Caring Model.
• Nursing is the application of the art and human science through transpersonal caring.
20. LAWRENCE KOHLBERG
• Three (3) levels of moral development:
> Premoral or preconventional
> Conventional level
> Postconventional level
21. MADELEINE LEININGER
• Transcultural nursing.
• Nursing is a humanistic and scientific mode of helping a client through specific cultural caring process.
22. MARGARET NEWMAN
• Health as expanding consciousness.
• Humans are unitary beings in whom disease is a manifestation of the pattern of health.
23. MARTHA ROGERS
• Science of Unitary Human Beings.
• Human beings are more than and different from the sum of their parts.
24. MYRA LEVINE
• Four conservation principles:
> Conservation of energy,
> Structural integrity,
> Personal integrity and
> Social integrity
25. SIGMUND FREUD
• Psychosexual theory and Psychoanalytic Theory
26. SISTER CALISTA ROY
• Adaptation model.
• Each person is a unified biopsychosocial system in constant interaction with changing environment.
27. VIRGINIA HENDERSON
• Identified 14 basic needs.
• Nurse functions to assist clients in performing activities contributing to health, recovery, or peaceful death.
Those interested can take a giveaway article on Nightingale using this link http://file.scirp.org/pdf/OALibJ_2016071910161637.pdf
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