Stimulating Appetite And Nursing management By Nurse Ibrahim Isah Musa

Any Substance (i.e. drugs, food or hormones) or strategies (e.g. oral care) that can be used to stimulate appetite in order to increase eating desire in anyone.

Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger. Appealing foods can stimulate appetite even when hunger is absent, although appetite can be greatly reduced by satiety. Appetite exists in all higher life-forms, and serves to regulate adequate energy intake to maintain metabolic needs. It is regulated by a close interplay between the type of food, digestive tract and the brain. Appetite has a relationship with every individual’s behavior.

A loss of appetite occurs when you have a low desire to eat. Different factors can cause poor appetite, including mental and physical illness. If your lack of appetite last more than a couple of days, it can cause weight loss or malnutrition. Not having appetite can befrustrating for any one especially people who are underweight and trying to gain weight or build mass.

There are various causes that may lead to decrease appetite and subsequently lead to unwanted weight loss
i. Medical conditions (e.g. common malaria, gastritis and stomatitis and so on)
ii. Psychological and psychiatric disorders (e.g. anxiety and depression)
iii. Eating disorders (e.g. anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa)
iv. Alcoholism
v. Prematurity
vi. Congenital malformation (e.g. clef plate)
vii. Old age
viii. Pharmacological agent (e.g. digoxin hydralazine)
ix. Visual influence.

Sign and symptoms
Patient with decrease in appetite usually present the following signs and symptoms:
Nausea and vomiting
Regurgitation and rumination
Lump in the throat
Psychological disturbance
Electrolyte imbalance (e.g. hypocalcaemia and hypocalcaemia)

Nursing management
Assess patient general conditions and re assure patient before and during meal
Give patient oral toilet before and after meal
Provide privacy and allow patient to eat in confortable place needed
Give light exercise for 10-15 minute before eating this help to improve appetite
Administer prescribe appetite stimulant that help in stimulating patient appetite
Avoid any food or beverages that has no over powering smell
Provide patient with different choice of menu
Make food a pleasant experience allow patient to eat in attractive setting, playing his favorite music
Provide patients with snacks between meal and bed time choose food high in calorie and protein
Prove patient with small and frequent food
Continue to re assure patient allay his fear and anxiety.

Education on patient on discharge
i. Advice patient to eat nutrient rich foods
iii. Advice patient to add more calories to his meal
iv. Advice patientmake meal time an enjoyable and social activity
v. patient should learn on how to schedule meal time
vi. Advice patient not to skip breakfast
vii. Eat less fiber
viii. Eat more of your favorite food

Nursing diagnoses in patient with a decrease appetite
Anxiety related to decrease appetite
Risk for unstable blood glucose level
Risk for metabolic imbalance syndrome
Risk for imbalance fluid volume
Nursing intervention
Anxiety related to decrease appetite
Re-assure patient
Stay with patient to allay fear and anxiety during eating
Make meal time a joy able one
Risk for unstable blood glucose level
Provide oral care
Encourage patient to eat high calorie diet
Encourage patient on frequent food intake
Measure patient blood glucose level
Risk for imbalance fluid volume
Give fluid between diet and after dietary intake
Administer calorie rich fluid
Monitor input and output balance
Patient out come
Patient is free from anxiety
Patient fluid volume is restored
Patient nutritional status is stable

By Nurse Ibrahim Isah Musa RN, HND NS, BNSc

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