Nursing Laws And Ethics: Legal Aspects of Nursing Practice

INTRODUCTION
Nursing is a caring profession, which has its relevance and direct impact on the life, health, and well-being of individual, families and communities. It is therefore important to regulate the practice of nursing to ensure that standards are maintained to achieve safe practice. The regulation of nursing is achieved though credentialing, and standard of practice. Nursing practice is governed by legal concepts, knowledge of which helps the nurse to make decisions and take actions that are consistent with legal principles and thereby protecting the nurse from liability.

I am very much in no doubt that; we all know who a nurse is? What it takes to be a nurse, the act establishing NMCN, duties and functions of the council? As such, I will not stress you with all that…. Therefore, Law on the other hand is define as those rules made by humans that regulate social conduct in a formally prescribed and legally binding manner. It could be said to refer to some written and unwritten rules derived from customs and as formal enactment, which are recognized by the people as binding on them and could be imposed upon them by some appropriate sanctions. The implication of the above is that when you do not keep to these rules, the law will punish you.


According to a new report by the Nurses Service Organization, there has been a significant increase in malpractice claims against nurses in recent years. Furthermore, Between January 1st, 2010 and December 31st, 2014, over $90 million was paid in malpractice claims against registered nurses. Report by the Nurses Service Organization, stated that, there has been a significant increase in malpractice claims against nurses in recent years. Furthermore, Between January 1st, 2010 and December 31st, 2014, over $90 million was paid in malpractice claims against registered nurses According to the report, 85% of claims filed against nurses were against nurses with at least 16 years of practice, but the largest indemnity payments involved nurses with experience of no more than 5 years.

Functions of Law in Nursing
The law serves a number of functions in nursing which are to:
– Provides a framework for establishing which nursing actions in the care of clients are legal
– Differentiates the nurses’ responsibilities from those of other health professionals
– Helps establish the boundaries of independent nursing action
– Assists in maintaining standard of nursing practice by making nurses accountable under the law.

SOURCES OF LAW
There are several sources of Law which are as follows ;
– Legislative (Statutes) –this law is enacted by statute or Acts of parliament or the legislature is known as statutory law. Statutory laws can be made at the federal, state or local government levels. When federal and state laws conflict, federal laws supersedes, likewise state laws supersede local laws.
– Customs and Traditions – Laws that derive from customs and tradition of the people over the years but which are recognized by the constitution is known as customary laws. Examples include marriage rights, property ownership etc.
– Courts cases– Laws that evolve from court decisions are referred to as common laws or decisional laws. In addition to interpreting and applying constitutional or statutory laws, courts are also asked to resolve disputes between two parties. In the process of doing this, decisions are made and this result in common laws.
Common laws are continually being adapted and expanded. In deciding specific controversies, courts generally adhere to the doctrine of “to stand by things decided”, which usually refer to following precedence. In other words, to arrive at a ruling in a particular case, the court applies the same rules and principles applied in previous similar cases until it is either modified or overruled.
– Constitution- The constitution of a country is the supreme law of the country. It establishes the general organization of the federal governments, grants certain powers to them, and places limits on what federal and state governments may do. Constitutions create legal right and responsibilities and are the foundation for a system of Justice.
– Administrative authorities –In most cases, the process of law making follow some basic steps but occasionally, some administrative authorities such as the president, governors, ministers or
Commissioners make some general rules. Since such rules are not made by legislatures they are simply referred to as regulation or ordinances. An ordinance may simply be defined as the statement of general norms made by a chief executive of government without passing through the parliament.

TYPES OF LAW
Laws are categorized base on the type of relationship that it is supposed to govern. That is, whether it governs the relationship of private individuals with government and or with each other. This implies that there are two main types of law, PUBLIC and PRIVATE law.

What is public law?
Public law refers to the body of law that deals with relationships between individuals and government agency. It includes constitutional, international, criminal laws and other numerous regulations designed to enhance societal objectives. Failure to comply with such laws might lead to criminal legal actions and penalties. Criminal law is an important aspect of public law and it deals with actions against the safety and welfare of the public. Examples of such actions include; homicide, manslaughter, theft, arson, rape, and illegal possession of controlled drugs or arms. The implication is that if you commit a crime, you have committed an offense against society.

PRIVATE LAW OR CIVIL LAW
Is the body of law that deals with relationships between private individuals. It is categorized as contract law and tort law.

Contract law: This involves enforcement of agreement among private individuals or payment of compensation for failure to fulfill the agreements.

PRINCIPLES OF LAW
According to Anarado (2002), the system of law rests on four principles that include: Law is based on a concern for justice and fairness. The purpose of law is to protect the rights of one party from the transgressions of another by setting guidelines for conduct and mechanisms to enforce those guidelines. Law uses punishment to inhibit antisocial behaviour and to apply a just measure of retribution. This may be in form of a fine or a period of time in prison. However for claims of damages for negligence, financial reparation are regarded as compensation for injury sustained and not as a punishment for wrong inflicted. The court relies on the evidence before it in order to pass judgment. Actions are judged based on a universal standard of what a similarly educated, reasonable and prudent person would have done under similar circumstances. Legal rules are flexible: The law sets the parameters for adjudication, leaving room for the courts to interpret it further. For the sake of time, I will limit this presentation to tort law
TORT LAW
Tort Law is designed to protect individuals and organisations from civil wrongs other than breach of contract. Knowledge of the law of tort is important for all because most of the civil cases that resulted from nursing activities belong to the category of tort. Examples of such laws include malpractice, invasion of privacy, assault, battery, libel, slander, and false imprisonment. Assault and battery give rise to criminal and civil liability.

Malpractice is a broad term that is use to incorporate negligence, misconduct, or breach of duty by a professional that results in injury/damage to a patient (Reising & Allen, 2007). According to Reising and Allen, common malpractice claims arise against nurses when nurses fail to:
Assess and monitor.
Follow standards of care.
Use equipment in a responsible manner.
Communicate.
Kindly note that there are two types of tort law which are intentional and non intentional tort law

The Civil Judicial Process
The judicial process primarily functions to settle disputes peacefully and in accordance with the law: In other words, this is a process of filing a law suit against a defender. A lawsuit has strict procedural rules.

There are generally five steps in the process viz.
– A document known as complaint is filed by a person referred to as the plaintiff, who claims that his/her legal rights have been infringed upon by one or more persons, referred to as defendant(s)
– A written response, called an answer, is made by the defendant(s)
– Both parties engage in pre-trial activities referred to as discovery in an effort to gain all the facts of the situation.
– In the final of the case, all the relevant facts are presented to a jury or a judge.
– The judge renders a decision, or the jury renders a verdict. If the outcome is not acceptable to one of the parties, an appeal can be made for another trial.

During a trial, a plaintiff must offer evidence of the defendant’s wrongdoing. This duty of proving an assertion is called the burden of proof. As a nurse may be called to testify in a legal action for a variety of reasons. You may be a defendant in a malpractice or negligence action or may have been a member of the health team that provided care to plaintiff. It is advisable that any time you are asked to testify in such a situation to seek the advice of an attorney before providing testimony. In most cases the attorney for the employer will provide support and counsel during the legal case. If you are the defendant, however, it is advisable that you retain an attorney to protect your own interests.
Again, you may be asked to provide testimony as an expert witness. An expert witness is one who has special training, experience or skill in a relevant area and is allowed by the court to offer an opinion on some issues within the nurse’s area of expertise. Such a witness is usually called to help a judge or jury understand the evidence pertaining to the extent of damage or the standard of care.

LEGAL CONSIDERATION INVOLVING NURSING PRACTICE
Aside the regulation of nursing practice and standard, each hospital has their rules and codes of practice laid down to ensure safety and wellbeing of the patients. Any nurse, who do not oblige to these rules, codes of the hospital, and causes harm or injury to any patient, may be liable. Certainly, not all rules or policies covers every eventuality, hence the need for the nurse to ensure that the right patient gets the right treatment, use her professional judgment while caring for patients, do not attempt anything beyond her competence and should not exceed the limits of nursing procedures laid down…The laws governing nursing profession oblige nurses to perform their duties and responsibilities within the scope of nursing practice. Nurses have the duty to care for patients and should be cared for in the process of carrying out their lawful duties.

WHAT IS LITIGATION?
Litigation Is an act of being involved in a court case to defend a charge against a person or an organization. As a nurse, you can be invited to a court for any kind of professional misconduct, which the court often refers to as malpractice or negligence arising from her action.

COMMON CAUSES OF MALPRACTICE
According to Reising and Allen, common malpractice claims arise against nurses when nurses fail to:
Assess and monitor.
Follow standards of care.
Use equipment in a responsible manner.
Communicate.
Document.

WAYS OF MINIMIZING THE RISK OF MALPRACTICE
Nurses should be cognizant of legal risks in providing care. Reising (2012) suggests that the following actions can help minimize a nurse’s risk of being sued for malpractice:
. Know and follow your state’s nurse practice act and your facility’s policies and Stay up to date in your field of practice
. Assess your patients in accordance with policy and their physicians’ orders and, more frequently, if indicated by your nursing judgment
. Promptly report abnormal assessments, including laboratory data, and document what was reported and any follow-up
. Follow up on assessments or care delegated to others
. Communicate openly and factually with patients and their families and other health care providers
. Document all nursing care factually and thoroughly and ensure that the documentation reflects the nursing process; never chart ahead of time
. Promptly report and file appropriate incident reports for deviations in care.

EXPECTATIONS OF THE NURSE DURING LIGATION
Should the unfortunate occur, and the nurse discovers herself in the midst of a legal entanglement. The first step to take is to share your observation with your immediate superior, who will in turn notify her manager or advice you on what to do immediately. It is worthy to note that you should relay information factually and accurately to your confider. It’s also necessary to observed and complete all institutional procedural requirements. For instance, if your facility policy stipulated that an incident form be completed and forwarded, please endeavor to do so. Furthermore, contact your facility legal department/unit, which will assign an attorney to guide you through the case. Do not discuss the case with anyone other than your supervisor, employer, or legal representative.

EXPECTATIONS OF EMPLOYER DURING LIGATION PROCESS INVOLVING A NURSE
The nurse is a staff of the hospital and therefore, she cannot be disclaimed according to the doctrine of respondent superior (let the master answer)
The employer will notify the legal unit of the hospital for onward action
Set up an investigation panel to find out the truth
If possible, the hospital may employ the service of a lawyer to face the court etc.

EXPECTATIONS OF THE PROFESSIONAL BODIES DURING LIGATION OF ITS MEMBERS
Contact her lawyer
Set up investigation panel
Follow the accused to the court
Give necessary moral and financial support to the accused provided the nurse practice within her professional boundaries.

IMPLICATION OF LIGATION ON THE ACCUSED NURSE
If a nurse was found guilty, she may lose her job or be suspended from work
She may be fined or be made to pay compensation
Her license may be revoked
Litigations serve as lesson to others
If the nurse was NOT FOUND GUILTY:
She may be compensated adequately
She will be a public figure
The image of the nurses will improve etc.

THE NURSE AS A WITNESS IN THE COURT
A nurse may be require in the course of his professional duties to give account (evidence) of something he did or saw during his clinical duties in court as a professional witness or expert witness.

EXPECTED CONDUCT OF A NURSE IN COURT
The nurse should be punctual to court on the day he was ask to appear
He should be corporately dressed
His conduct should portray the image of nursing profession The nurse should listen thoughtfully to all the questions put to him
He should think before he gives his answers or opinions
His answers should be audible clear and firm and addressed to the judge and not to the counsel
The nurse should be courteous when answering questions.

He should be avoid temptation to be rude or hostile especially when being deliberately provoked during cross examination by the adverse counsel. Notably, the law allows the provocation, therefore a tit for tat policy maybe counterproductive. When it’s necessary to give a point to enable the court to understand the true state of affairs, the nurse should resist answering yes or no as may be demanded by the adverse counsel, It is expected that the nurse should use simple and clear language when responding to questions The nurse should always stand up when addressing the court to show respect to whom respect is due.

In conclusion,
Ethico-legal issues are far less common in developing countries compared with developed countries. This is partly because the populaces in developing countries are less well informed of their rights and because of fatalistic and religious beliefs in many societies in developing countries. With more awareness of the people, ethico-legal issues are likely to increase even in the developing nations.

It is therefore worthy of mention that, it is imperative for the Nurses to imbibe the characteristics of the profession and scope of practice as listed out by the ICN and by by NMCN; these would help a lot in the practice of nursing in Nigeria.

Thank you all for your attention
Source: Nurse Halliru LKabeer


New and Revised Entry Requirements For Nurses Training Schools in Zimbabwe

The Ministry of Health and Child Care has revised the entry requirements for the nurse training programme. According to the new requirements, prospective nurses must have passed English Language, Mathematics, a Science subject and two other subjects in a SINGLE sitting. In the past students with 5 Ordinary Levels obtained in two sittings were eligible. The government also restricted the course to those between the ages of 18 and 30.

 

In a circular, Permanent Secretary for Health and Child Care, Major Gerald Gwinji said,

 

RE: REVISED ENROLMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR TRAINEES FOR THE REGISTERED GENERAL NURSE TRAINING COURSE FROM MAY 2019

 

The above subject refers.

 

Applicants for the above course should be between the ages of 18 and 30 years.

 

Applicants must have 5 ‘0’ Levels passes in one sitting with grade C or better. The subjects should include English Language, Mathematics and a Science subject. The two of subjects exclude practical subjects such as Woodwork, Building, Metal Work, Art, Fashion and Fabrics.

Harare Central Hospital School of Nursing 2018/2019 Admission Forms on sale

Harare Hospital CEO Dr Nyasha Masuka said the Harare Central Hospital School of Nursing will be conducting their recruitment process in public from this year onwards.

 

There are reports some prospective nurses have had to bribe officials to get a place at a nurses’ training school. Dr Masuka invited members of the public to observe the selection process.Said Dr Masuka:

 

All applications will have to come via the post office and will conduct the selection in a ballot box. We will invite members of the public to observe the selection process.

Harare Hospital will be reducing its intake from the current 72 to 35 so as to scale up the standards of its graduates. Last week, the Ministry of Health and Child Care announced revised requirements of trainees for the registered general nurses’ course from May 2019, citing that they now require 5 Ordinary levels including Mathematics in one (1) sitting.

Japan to hire 50,000 Filipino nurses and other workers starting 2019

Starting next year until 2025, Japan will be hiring at least 50,000 Filipino skilled workers including nurses, farmers, and those from the construction, hospitality and shipbuilding industries.

 

Tokyo announces that Filipino workers will have a chance to get employed in their country in the next six years once Prime Minister Shinzo Abe finalizes new rules to give temporary residence to foreign manual laborers.

 

Ambassador Koji Haneda said Japan’s parliament is set to deliberate during its extraordinary session in autumn on the creation of a new residency status. The status, he added, would allow foreign workers in a wider range of industries to stay for five years.

 

“While we are waiting for the rules and regulations of this new scheme to be released, I personally estimate more than 50,000 workers from the Philippines will come to work in Japan with this new work permit by 2025,” Haneda said.

 

The upcoming new policy effectively lifts the ban on the recruitment of foreigners for manual labor, thus nursing, farming, construction, hospitality and shipbuilding industries are expected to hire Filipino skilled workers.

 

“In order to accept more foreign workers in Japan, we will create a new residency status for foreign workers with a certain level of expertise or skill from next year,” Haneda said.

 

He explained the Philippines and Japan have three defining aspects in their economic partnership which are the cooperation in infrastructure development, mutually beneficial trade policies and “people-to-people ties.”

 

“In this area, Japan and the Philippines can form truly mutually complementary relations. Japan faces an aging society and lacks labor force while the Philippines is abundant with young labor force with great potential,” he said.

 

“Filipino workers are expected to help Japan address the issues arising from aging society. Japan can provide qualified Filipino workers with job opportunities,” the ambassador added.

 

Haneda cited Japan’s announcement in May it would welcome over 500,000 foreign workers between 2019 and 2025 to help fill the labor shortage in the face of Japan’s aging population and the need to increase its potential growth rate.

 

But at the time, Tokyo did not say how many slots would be allotted for specific countries although they will join the 1.28 million foreign workers already in Japan, based on data from the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare.

 

Of the total foreign workers in Japan, 12 percent or about 153,600 are from the Philippines which belong to highly specialized fields, such as engineering and the academe.

 

Japan currently allows the hiring of only highly-skilled foreign workers and given Haneda’s estimates under the new program, one in 10 job openings starting summer of 2019 will be filled by a Filipino.

 

Japan is the Philippines’ top export market and its largest foreign investor with over 1,500 Japanese companies operating in the Philippines, mostly engaged in manufacturing and business process outsourcing. (via Daily Tribune)

How I Passed NCLEX After 22 Years of Graduating from Nursing School

Hello! I would like to share my experience reviewing for the NCLEX RN and hope that this might inspire some of you.

I graduated 22 years ago in the Philippines. I never practiced my nursing career, instead, I became a teacher. I migrated here in the US 8 years ago, and wondered if I could still be a nurse. I got my eligibility two years ago, and two months before it expired, I started reviewing. ( I am a procrastinator 😂 ) I work a full time job, a mom to two girls.

I used Remar, Uworld a month before I took the exam ( used only 1050 questions), Mark Klimek (was only able to finish 2 modules). My routine was like this: work til 4:30 pm, I get home at 5ish, cook dinner, take care of my youngest daughter’s homework, clean up then put her to bed at 8:30, then I can study til about 11pm. I struggled to review at night because I am already so tired and sleepy at that time.

Two months of that crazy and stressful routine!!

I took my test last Friday, stopped at 124 questions, had 38 SATAs, a lot of prioritization, 1 computation, 1 ECG strip, 15 pharm/drug questions, 5 drag and drops. The last 6-7 questions were so basic, that I felt like a failure. The following days after my exam were so depressing because I really thought I failed.

Until today, I checked the California Board of Nursing website, and I passed!! I believe in the power of prayers!! Keep the faith! 😊

P.S. I was only on the 42nd percentile in Uworld, getting only low 50s in every test i took. Do not be intimidated by the figures/percentiles.. just focus on understanding the rationales. Good luck!!

Boko Haram Executes Hauwa Leman, Keeps third Nurse as Slave

The Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP), a faction of Boko Haram, has executed Hauwa Leman,a Registered Midwife and an aide worker with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), TheCable has been informed.

The terrorists also vowed to keep Leah Sharibu, the Dapchi schoolgirl, as “a slave for life”, TheCable exclusively gathered.

In a short clip seen by a special correspondent of TheCable, Leman was forced to kneel down, with her hands tied inside a white hijab which has a crest symbol, and then shot at a close range.

In September 2018, the insurgent group killed Saifura Ahmed, one of the three humanitarian workers abducted in Rann, Kala Balge local government area of Borno state, in March 2018, in a similar manner.

Leman, a 24-year-old midwife and student of health education at the University of Maiduguri, was in the group that was abducted.

Four soldiers, four policemen and three humanitarian aid workers were killed in the attack.

Toafic Toure, ICRC operational communication delegate, Maiduguri sub-delegation, had on Sunday pleaded with the federal government to avert Leman’s killing as the Monday deadline given by the insurgents approached.

ISWAP, in a short statement, said: “We have kept our word exactly as we said, by killing another humanitarian worker, Hauwa Leman, who is working with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) that were abducted during a raid on a military facility in Rann, Kala Balge in March 2018.

“Saifura and Hauwa were killed because they are considered as Murtads (apostates) by the group because they were once Muslims that have abandoned their Islam, the moment they chose to work with the Red Cross, and for us, there is no difference between Red Cross and UNICEF.

“If we see them, we will kill the apostates among them, men or women, and chose to kill or keep the infidels as slaves, men or women.”

‘LEAH AND ALICE WILL BE OUR SLAVES’

Meanwhile, ISWAP has threatened to keep Sharibu as a slave.

She is the only Christian among the 110 girls abducted at the Government Girls’ Science and Technical College, Dapchi, Yobe state, on February 19, 2018.

While other girls were released, she was kept back because she refused to renounce her Christian faith.

There has been a global plea for her release.

The group said in the statement that Alice Ngaddah, a Registered Nurse and a Christian who works with UNICEF, will also be kept as a slave.

“From today”, ISWAP said, Sharibu, 15, and Ngaddah, a mother of two, “are now our slaves”.

“Based on our doctrines, it is now lawful for us to do whatever we want to do with them,” the group further said.

‘TELL MY PARENTS I’M IN TROUBLE’

In the audio sent to one of her male friends when she was captured in March, Leman, who spoke in Hausa, said her parents should be informed that she had been kidnapped.

Running and panting, the victim said: “We are under attack in Rann. They are shooting everywhere please pray for me; please go and tell my parents that I am in trouble.

“Please, look for Fatima and tell her they are taking us away. They have entered here now…”

At that point, a male voice ordered her to keep quiet and not to move an inch. That was the last that was heard from her.

Source: https://www.thecable.ng/breaking-boko-haram-executes-another-aide-worker-says-leah-will-live-as-slave

‘We Did All We Could To Save Nurse Hauwa Liman from Boko Haram’ – Lai Mohammed

The Federal Government is shocked and saddened at the killing of another aid worker by Boko Haram on Monday, despite the actions taken by the government and the widespread appeal to save the young woman.

A statement issued in London on Monday by Segun Adeyemi, Special Adviser to the Honourable Minister of Information and Culture, Alhaji Lai Mohammed, described the killing as dastardly, inhuman and ungodly, saying nothing can justify the shedding of the blood of innocent people.

He commiserated with the family of Hauwa Leman, noting that the Federal Government did all within its powers to save her life.

His words: “It is very unfortunate that it has come to this. Before and after the deadline issued by her abductors, the Federal Government did everything any responsible government should do to save the aid worker.

“As we have been doing since these young women were abducted, we kept the line of negotiations open all through. In all the negotiations, we acted in the best interest of the women and the country as a whole.

”We are deeply pained by this killing, just like we were by the recent killing of the first aid worker. However, we will keep the negotiations open and continue to work to free the innocent women who remain in the custody of their abductors.”

He thanked all the friendly governments that have continued to work with Nigeria for the safe release of the abducted women, and the clerics across religious lines who have been pleading for their
release.

Source: https://dailynaija.com/post/we-did-all-we-could-to-save-aid-worker-hauwa-liman-says-lai-mohammed

FMC Yola 2018/2019 Perioperative Nursing Form on Sale

Application are invited from suitably qualified candidates for admission into the above name School for a 1 year course in Perioperative Nursing beginning from November, 2018 leading to licensing by the Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria as Registered Perioperative Nurse (RPON)

The Course is designed to equip Registered Nurses(RN) wwith the theoretical underpinnings and skills required for proving effective, acceptable and safe Perioperative Nursing care to the clients/patients

Admission Requirements
Applicants Should:
1. Be Registered Nurses(RN) with current practice License of the Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria
2. Have at least five(5) credit passes at not more than two(2) sitting in English Language, Mathematics, Physics, Biology and Chemistry from WAEC or NECO O Level examinations.
3. Have at least One(1) year post qualification experience in an acute care setting preferably in a surgical unit.
4. Have approval for one(1) full year of release from employers or other training Schools

Method of Application
Forms are obtainable with effect from 12th October 2018 from the Perioperative Nursing School, Federal Medical Centre, Yola upoon presentation of the following:
Receipt in respect of payment of Ten Thousand Naira(N10,000) only to the Federal Medical Centre, Yola, Treasury Single Account (TSA) in any commercial Bank

Entrant Examination and Interview
Date: 13th-16th November 2018
Venue: College of Nursing and Midwifery, Yola

Researchers Find No Progress in Media Representation of Nurses Over Last 20 Year

A replication of the 1997 “Woodhull Study on Nursing and the Media” found nurses continue to be underrepresented as sources in heath news stories despite their increasing levels of education and expertise. A companion study found biases among newsrooms about women, nurses and positions of authority in health care can impede a journalist’s use of nurses as sources in health news stories, despite unique perspectives that could enrich a story. The research, led by the George Washington University School of Nursing’s Center for Health Policy and Media Engagement, was published in two parts in the Journal of Nursing Scholarship and the American Journal of Nursing.

“The lack of progress in nurses’ representation in health news stories over the past 20 years was stunning, particularly since the 2010 Institute of Medicine report on ‘The Future of Nursing’ noted that we can’t transform health care and promote the health of the public without recognizing and tapping into the special expertise of nurses,” said Diana J. Mason, the principal investigator of the GW study and a registered nurse and senior policy service professor for GW’s Center for Health Policy and Media Engagement.

The original Woodhull Study found nurses were represented as sources in less than 4 percent of health news stories in leading print newspapers, newsweeklies and health care trade publications of the day. Using the same publications as the original study, the team, which also included researchers from the Berkeley Media Studies Group, examined a randomly selected sample of 365 health news stories published in September 2017 to determine the type and subject of the article, the profession and gender of speakers and the number of times nurses were referenced without being quoted. They discovered that nurses were identified as sources in 2 percent of health news coverage and mentioned in 13 percent of health news coverage overall.

In addition, the researchers conducted one-on-one telephone interviews with health journalists to better understand the barriers and facilitators to using nurses as sources in news stories. The interviews revealed an overarching theme of biases, not just among journalists, but also editors, public relations staff and health care organizations.

“It was not enough to just document that nothing has changed in 20 years,” Barbara Glickstein, co-principal investigator on the study, said. “We had to understand why there has been no movement in who are considered experts.”

For example, the researchers heard from participants that preconceptions exist in health news about positions of authority, placing “rock-star doctors” at the top of their lists of sources. The participants explained that their newsroom cultures typically affect their selection of sources and that they have had to defend using a nurse as a source.

“Journalists and the media play an important role in educating the public about issues affecting health and health care, but their biases about who are credible experts is limiting the richness of their reporting,” Jean Johnson, executive director of the Center for Health Policy and Media Engagement, said. “If journalists aren’t interviewing nurses, they may be missing the best part of the story.”

Several additional themes emerged from the interviews, including health journalists not understanding the range of nurses’ roles and the nursing profession not routinely engaging journalists. The researchers note that journalists and nurses can both do more to ensure the public benefits from the knowledge and insight nurses can provide.

Source : https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-10/gwu-rfn101518.php

Nurse Hauwa Liman’s Parents Speak With TVC, As ICRC Reacts To Her Death (Video)

Hauwa Liman’s parents speak with TVC News on the execution of their daughter by Boko Haram. The father says he wants his daughter’s corpse brought to him so as to bury her in the Islamic way.

Meanwhile, Peter Maurer, the President of International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and other members of ICRC have reacted to the execution of the beautiful Hauwa Liman.

It is with deep horror that I hear of the execution of Hauwa in #Nigeria.

@ICRC
condemns this senseless murder; an act of contempt for humanity.

Hauwa was a brave young midwife working to bring life into the world, and we mourn her loss with the greatest sorrow.

Hauwa’s shocking death comes only a few weeks after her colleague, Saifura, was also killed.

These young women shouldn’t be defined by their deaths but remembered for the courage and compassion they showed in their short lives.

To watch the video click https://m.youtube.com/watch?feature=youtu.be&v=yqk64vEOya8&a=