South African Students Left In Limbo As Gauteng Nursing Colleges Shut Doors

About 700 nursing candidates who cannot afford fees this year at Gauteng colleges will be left out in the cold.

Yesterday, Democratic Nursing Organisation of South Africa (Denosa) president Simon Hlungwani said they had received complaints from distressed candidates who qualified for the four-year nursing diploma.

Hlungwani said candidates were informed there would be no intake for this year despite their completion of the selection process.

Candidates had applied to various institutions including Ann Latsky, Chris Hani Baragwanath and SG Lourens nursing colleges.

Hlungwani said the union was concerned that this would worsen the existing shortage of nurses.

He said a gap in the training of nurses would impact heavily on previously disadvantaged communities who relied on the public healthcare system.

Lerato Madumo Gova from the Young Nurses Indaba Trade Union said some candidates who went through psychometric tests, interviews and medical screening forfeited other opportunities because they had passed all the requirements for the nurse course and were looking forward to begin studying and training as nurses.

“This is dire to the training of nurses. It is going to impact on students and citizens,” she said.

Gova said unions would push to meet with health MEC Gwen Ramokgopa to try and resolve the matter.

A 27-year-old mother of two from Soweto who had applied was distressed by the turn of events. “I’m stressed. I can’t even sleep at night.”

The woman showed Sowetan SMSes she received.

“Please come for collection of a provisional acceptance letter for nursing course at Chris Hani Baragwanath Nursing College at 08h00 on 21 December 2017,” the SMS stated.

This was followed by another message informing her not to fetch the document.

“There are new developments regarding 2018 student intake. Please do not report at Bara Nursing College tomorrow until further notice.”

Another disappointed candidate said she abandoned her job hunt after she passed the interviews last year.

The 22-year-old said: “They are telling us a lot of stories. I’m devastated. I don’t even know what to think.”

Spokesman at the provincial department Lesemang Matuka said they would continue to fund second, third and fourth year students. He said colleges would only admit first-year students with external bursaries or those who can afford to pay the fees themselves.

“At this juncture we cannot afford R57-million required to fund first year students.”

He said 700 candidates were affected.
By Zoë Mahopo, South Africa

Full Text of American Academy of Nursing Position Statement on Nurse Fatigue

The American Academy of Nursing promotes management practices in health care organizations and strategies in the nurse’s personal life to support sleep health in nurses and, as a result, an alert nursing workforce fit to perform their jobs and more able to live healthy lives. Society requires critical nursing services around the clock. Consequently, shift work and long work hours are common in health care organizations and negatively affect a significant percent of nurses. Working at night and irregular hours compromise human physiology dictated by the need for sleep and circadian rhythms. The challenge that nurses on shift work face is the need to work at night (when our physiology promotes sleep) and sleep during the day (when our physiology promotes activity). When shift work combines with long work hours (e.g., shifts of 12 hr or more) and leads to sleep deficiency or disruption to circadian rhythms, the health and safety costs of this conflict with human physiology are potentially significant. Sleep deficiency is a broad term that includes inadequate sleep duration, poor sleep quality, untreated sleep disorders, and mistimed sleep that is not synchronized with circadian rhythms. Sleep deficiency can affect nurses’ work readiness and health, safety, and well-being. Evidence is building that long shifts, shift rotations, double shifts, evening, and night shifts are associated with multiple short- and long-term health and safety risks to the nurse (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health [NIOSH]; NIOSH, Caruso, Geiger-Brown, Takahashi, Trinkoff, & Nakata, 2015). Tired nurses are also at risk for making fatigue-related patient care errors that can endanger their patients (Bae & Fabry, 2014). These risks also extend to the nurse’s family, their employer/health care organization, and the broader society when tired nurses make errors at work and home or crash their vehicle due to drowsy driving. This complex hazard requires a variety of personal, workplace, and public health strategies to reduce these risks. Unfortunately, persons working in health care organizations may not fully understand the health and safety risks that are associated with fatigue and may be unaware of evidence-based strategies to reduce these risks. Yet evidence shows that it is possible to limit or modify the adverse impact of shift work and long work hours on nurses by improving their sleep and reducing fatigue.

This position statement is consistent with three of the academy’s strategic goals (American Academy of Nursing, 2017). (a) Influence the development and implementation of policy that improves the health of populations and achieves health equity. (b) Influence practice design through nursing science to improve the health of populations. (c) Position the academy and nursing profession to lead change and drive policy and practice to improve health and health care. These efforts will impact the nursing workforce as well as the patient population and the broad range of other people whom nurses interact with at work, home, and during their commutes. Several studies report that nurses working shift work and long work hours are at risk for making errors in the delivery of patient care (Bae & Fabry, 2014). According to the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety (Tefft, 2016), the risk of vehicle crashes shows a dose–response relationship with sleep duration: less than 4 hr sleep in past 24 hr increases risk of a crash 11.5 times; 4 to 5 hr of sleep increases risk 4.3 times; 5 to 6 hr of sleep increases risk 1.9 times; and 6 to 7 hr of sleep increases risk 1.3 times. RAND reports that insufficient sleep could cost the overall U.S. economy upward of $411 billion annually (2.28% of its gross domestic product) due to a range of negative impacts, reduced productivity, and loss of 1.2 million working days per year (Hafner, Stepanek, Taylor, Troxel, & Van Stolk, 2016).

A growing number of organizations recognize the broad health and safety risks that are linked to shift work, long work hours, and worker fatigue, and are working toward reducing these risks. Governmental agencies, professional and public service organizations, and safety professionals across several industries are working on this critical topic.

Governmental efforts include work by the NIOSH of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. NIOSH has a long-standing commitment to reducing the risks from these demanding work hours through research, guidance, and authoritative recommendations, strategic partnerships, and dissemination of information to protect workers and their families, employers, and the community (NIOSH, 2017).

For nurses, NIOSH developed an online continuing education program, NIOSH training for nurses on shift work and long work hours (NOSH et al., 2015). This training relays the risks, the reasons why these occur, and gives strategies for nurses and their managers to reduce these risks. Other governmental efforts include 20 U.S. states that prohibit or restrict mandatory overtime in nurses (American Nurses Association [ANA], 2011). Another example is the U.S. Army Medicine Performance Triad (U.S. Army Medicine, 2016), which aims to improve soldier readiness, increase their resilience, and promote their health. The Performance Triad focuses on three behaviors: (a) get quality sleep; (b) engage in activity; and (c) improve nutrition. An additional example is the federal hours of service regulations for the transportation modes and nuclear power plants. These have been in place for many years to reduce the risk to the public when tired commercial vehicle drivers or workers in nuclear power plants make mistakes that endanger the public.

Several professional and public service organizations as well as safety professionals have initiatives designed to address this hazard. The ANA has been active on this topic. In 2014, ANA released their revised position statement on nurse fatigue that promotes evidence-based strategies to prevent nurse fatigue and sleepiness, promote the health, safety, and wellness of registered nurses, and ensure optimal patient outcomes (ANA, 2014). Recently, ANA began an initiative, Healthy Nurse Healthy Nation, which includes promoting sleep health and preventing fatigue (ANA, 2016). The Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization published the updated National Institute of Health National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Su Corazon/Su Vida training manual with the first ever session on sleep disorders and sleep health promotion to train Spanish-speaking promotores, nurses, and other health care providers about the relationships between sleep and health (Baldwin, 2014)). Recently, the National Safety Council (2017)) began a new initiative to reduce the broad risks associated with fatigue and inadequate sleep. They are addressing personal health and safety as well as risks at home, at work, and on the roads. Safety and health professionals across many industries are incorporating fatigue risk management systems in their operations (Lerman et al., 2012). These comprehensive systems include seven elements: management policies; addressing vulnerable areas and establishing controls; reporting systems for employees; incident investigation; training for employees and managers; sleep disorder management; and a system of corrective actions and continuous improvement.

The American Academy of Nursing recognizes that safe nursing practice requires health care providers obtaining sleep that is of high quality and adequate duration. Nurse fatigue poses a danger to patients because of increased risk of error, other people on the roads when tired nurses commute to and from work, and the health and safety of nurses themselves. Managers and nurses share in the responsibility of reducing the risks linked to poor sleep health and fatigue. Managers are responsible for using evidence-based practices in the design of their employees’ work schedules and for establishing policies, programs, practices, and systems at work that promote sleep health and an alert workforce. Nurses are responsible for allowing enough time for sleep, adopting evidence-based personal practices and behaviors to maximize sleep and alertness, and educating the important people in their lives to reduce conflicting demands from work and personal responsibilities. The American Academy of Nursing supports initiatives by health care organizations, individual nurses, and public health and governmental agencies to develop strategies that improve the sleep health of nurses. This will help ensure that nurses are fit to provide excellent patient care around the clock as well as help nurses maintain their own health, safety, and sense of well-being. The American Academy of Nursing recommends the following actions.

Urge nurses and employers of health care organizations to educate themselves about the health risks linked to shift work and long work hours and the evidence-based strategies to reduce those risks.

Urge employers of health care organizations to incorporate evidence-based practices in the design of their employees’ work schedules and establish policies, programs, practices, and systems at work that promote sleep health and an alert workforce.

Urge employers to promote a workplace culture that promotes sleep health to achieve optimum functioning, health, safety, and sense of well-being of their workforce.

Encourage employers to recognize the role of shift work, long shifts, and nurse fatigue on turnover, absenteeism, patient safety, and related costs.

Urge experts to develop additional continuing education courses for nurses and nursing managers that relay evidence-based personal practices and workplace interventions to maximize sleep health and alertness in nurses.

American Academy of Nursing Position Statement on Nurse Fatigue

The American Academy of Nursing today released its position statement recommending policies and practices that promote adequate, high quality sleep for nurses to contribute to safe nursing practice and patient care.

The U.S. healthcare system requires critical nursing services around the clock, leading to many nurses working overnight hours and having irregular shifts. The human bodies’ circadian rhythm naturally promotes activity during the day and sleep at night. Long and irregular shift hours, such as a 12-hour work day, disrupts this natural sleep cycle, and has the chance to affect nurses health, readiness, their ability to function in the delivery of patient care, and may lead to more medical errors.

The Academy’s position statement, “Reducing Fatigue Associated with Sleep Deficiency and Work Hours in Nurses,” was published in the November/December 2017 issue of the Academy’s journal, Nursing Outlook.

“The Academy is pleased to publish this important statement on reducing fatigue in nurses,” said Academy President, Karen Cox, PhD, RN, FACHE, FAAN. “Many healthcare organizations may not fully understand the health risks for both nurses and their patients from a tired workforce.”

To address this issue, the US government’s National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has developed the online continuing education program, “NIOSH Training for Nurses on Shift Work and Long Work Hours.”

On a broader level, 2017 research published by The Ohio State University College of Nursing in the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine found that depression is common among nurses and is linked to a higher likelihood that they will make medical errors. The study, led by Bernadine Melnyk, dean of the College of Nursing and member of the million hearts subcommittee of the American Academy of Nursing’s Health Behavior Expert Panel, found that more than half of nurses who took part in a national survey reported sub-optimal physical and mental health. Access the study:

The Academy recommends that healthcare organizations incorporate evidence-based practices in the design of their healthcare workforce schedules, and also educate themselves about the health risks from long work shift hours.

Read the Academy’s full positon statement here:

State investigating staffing levels, conditions at Goshen nursing home

The state Department of Health is investigating staffing levels and living conditions for seniors at Sapphire Nursing and Rehab at Goshen, amid calls by local politicians to do so.

U.S. Rep. Sean Patrick Maloney and state Assemblyman James Skoufis asked the state Department of Health on Thursday to investigate staffing levels and living conditions for seniors at Sapphire.

The Health Department confirmed Thursday that an investigation had been launched. Last month, the home formerly known as Elant at Goshen laid off more than half its nurses, according to layoff letters and staff memos obtained by the Times Herald-Record.

Since the recent completion of its sale by nonprofit Elant to for-profit Goshen Operations, the home was rebranded Sapphire.

Sapphire’s nurse tally has fallen 54 percent since June to 17 nurses, including two registered nurses and 15 licensed practical nurses, according to 1199 SEIU United Healthcare Workers East.

Six months ago, there were 37 nurses — 12 RNs and 25 LPNs, the union said.

This month, the 120-bed home began using one LPN per every 40 residents from 7 a.m. to 11 p.m. compared with one LPN per 20 residents previously, the union said. Seven of the home’s leaders, including Sapphire Executive Administrator Crystal Cummings, and key staff members have either resigned or been laid off since mid-December, the union added.

“The reports we’re getting from family members of folks at Sapphire and the local health care community are incredibly disturbing, and we must get to the bottom of it,” Maloney said in a statement. “Denying these older Americans the dignity and comprehensive care they deserve is infuriating, and Assemblyman Skoufis and I will stay on this until we’re sure they’re getting the level of respect and care they deserve.”

Skoufis released his own statement echoing Maloney’s concerns.

“Patients, family members and their nurses deserve far better than what we’ve seen out of Sapphire,” Skoufis wrote. “From the reports I’ve received, the level of care has been ravaged due to the for-profit owners’ excessive cuts. The Department of Health needs to intervene, and quickly.”

Reached by phone Thursday, new Sapphire Administrator Audrey Lewin declined to comment.

State Department of Health spokeswoman Jill Montag said, “The New York state Department of Health takes the safety and well-being of nursing home residents very seriously.” She declined to comment further because the department’s investigation is ongoing.

‘Conceptual progress’ in nurses, hospital contract talks

On the eve of Baystate Franklin Medical Center President Cindy Russo’s final night at the helm, negotiations between the hospital and the nurses union went past the 12-hour mark as they continued to search for some common ground in the 15th month of bargaining.

While the two parties did not get out of negotiations before press time, the meeting came on the heels of some relative momentum in what has been a contentious dispute over the contract for the nurses at the Greenfield hospital.

“While there has been some conceptual progress, there is not agreement on core issues yet,” Massachusetts Nurses Association spokesman Joe Markman said in a statement, adding the talks have been “off the record.”

Typically these meetings last about eight hours, while in this case, “it’s not typical to go so long into the night,” Markman added.

Shortly before press time Thursday night, the hospital’s spokeswoman Shelly Hazlett declined to comment on any of the matters regarding the negotiations.

Negotiations date back to November 2016, just before when the nurses’ contract was supposed to end at the end of the calendar year. Instead, the two parties have been debating a potential contract for now past a year.

Staffing concerns has remained the chief demand by nurses, looking for what they describe as “safe staffing ratios.” Other issues have included overtime, holiday and sick time, and health insurance plans.

The negotiations flared to its peak in late June when the nurses announced a one-day strike, which was followed by the hospital’s announcement of a concurrent three-day lockout of the nurses.

Russo had called the strike “illegal” and a spokeswoman for the hospital angled the strike was “planned,” both to the vehement denial by the nurses.

As for the lockout, union representatives had called the lockout, which prevented the nurses from entering the hospital starting the day of their strike to two full days after, as unprecedented. The hospital had said it was the only way it could handle the one-day strike by the nurses because it had to hire travel nurses to fill their spots, and a three-day contract with those interim nurses was the only way they could do so.

This past November, nurses at Westfield’s Baystate Noble ratified its contract with the hospital after a similarly lengthy process.

At the time, Stern expressed that she had hoped that signaled a step in the right direction.

“What makes that so positive is it demonstrates a pathway to settlement for us,” Stern said in early December. “It shows after a 1.5 years of long negotiations for them, management came back to the table and really started working with nurses in a collaborative way.”

A major point of contention that the nurses union have held, expressed from comments by Stern to songs chanted at rallies on the Greenfield Town Common, is that they felt the negotiations have been dictated by upper Baystate Health management, instead of local management of Baystate Franklin.

As talks started to turn the corner following Noble’s ratification of its contract, according to Stern, a main factor was the presence of Baystate Franklin Medical Center President Cindy Russo at the negotiation table.

When Russo announced her resignation from the job in early December after 18 months on the job, Stern and the nurses declined to comment on it.

The hospital’s security union wrapped the resignation into the point that their own charges that named Russo, which the regional office of the National Labor Relations Board had ruled to have merit in the week prior, showed that the president’s connection to union activity ultimately led to her resignation.

Russo is scheduled to stay on as president of the Greenfield hospital until Jan. 12.

Nurse staffing levels linked to patient satisfaction

Satisfaction with care in hospitals declines when patients believe there are not enough nurses on wards, according to a new study based on the NHS Inpatient Survey published in the BMJ Open.

Only 14 per cent of patients who reported there was never or rarely enough nurses on the hospital ward rated their care as excellent, while 57 percent of patients who reported there were usually enough nurses rated their care as excellent.

The study, led by researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, University of Southampton, and King’s College London, also showed that only 60 per cent of the 66,348 patients responding to the NHS survey reported that there were usually enough nurses available to provide their care. One in 10 patients surveyed said there were never or rarely enough professional nurses during their hospital stay, the study has shown.

The internationally renowned research team say that their findings show that it is the availability of qualified registered nurses in hospitals that affects patient satisfaction most.

“The often repeated narrative suggesting that quality deficits in hospitals are due to ‘uncaring’ nurses is not supported by evidence from the NHS’s own survey,” says author Linda Aiken, PhD, RN, Director of the Center for Health Outcomes and Policy Research at the University of Pennsylvania. “Patients value nurses so much that when nurses are in short supply, patients’ overall ratings of their hospitals decline sharply.”

The study shows that missed nursing care that is common when there are too few nurses on duty contributes to patients’ low ratings of their hospitals.

Professor Peter Griffiths, from the University of Southampton, said: “The variation in nurse staffing levels between different NHS hospitals is huge. When there aren’t enough professional nurses, things get missed, patients notice, and this affects their confidence in the quality of the hospital and the care they receive.”

“England has one of the lowest percentages among European countries of professional nurses at the bedside already. We know that 65 per cent of nurses in hospitals in England say that high workloads prevent them from spending enough time comforting patients while 52 per cent of nurses say they don’t have enough time to teach patients and their families how to manage after hospital. But having more staff on the wards, who have limited qualifications is not enough – the NHS needs to focus on achieving safe registered nurse staffing levels as a means to achieve better outcomes including improving patients’ satisfaction with their care.”

The study shows that patients’ confidence in doctors and nurses is equally important in whether they rate the hospital care as excellent.

“Shoring up nurse staffing as well as medical staffing is warranted to improve quality of care,” said Professor Anne Marie Rafferty, DPhil (Oxon) RN, from the Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing, Midwifery and Palliative Care, King’s College London.

”Patient perception is an important barometer of quality of care and confidence in the NHS. The widening gap between demand and capacity is reflected in missed care, which in turn is associated with poor nurse staffing and poor hospital environments. Improving nurse staffing in NHS hospitals holds promise for improving patient satisfaction”.

This large study is the latest in a series of studies and commissioned reports on uneven quality of care in NHS hospitals in England pointing to the immediate need for increasing the number of funded positions in NHS hospitals for highly qualified professional nurses.


About the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing

The University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing is one of the world’s leading schools of nursing. For the second year in a row, it is ranked the #1 nursing school in the world by QS University, and has four graduate programs ranked number one by U.S. News & World Report, the most of any school in the United States. Penn Nursing is consistently among the nation’s top recipients of nursing research funding from the National Institutes of Health. Penn Nursing prepares nurse scientists and nurse leaders to meet the health needs of a global society through research, education, and practice. Follow Penn Nursing on: Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Instagram & YouTube.

About the University of Southampton

Through world-leading research and enterprise activities, the University of Southampton connects with businesses to create real-world solutions to global issues. Through its educational offering, it works with partners around the world to offer relevant, flexible education, which trains students for jobs not even thought of. This connectivity is what sets Southampton apart from the rest; we make connections and change the world.

King’s College London

King’s College London is one of the top 25 universities in the world (2016/17 QS World University Rankings) and among the oldest in England. King’s has more than 29,600 students (of whom nearly 11,700 are graduate students) from some 150 countries worldwide, and some 8,000 staff. King’s has an outstanding reputation for world-class teaching and cutting-edge research. In the 2014 Research Excellence Framework (REF), eighty-four per cent of research at King’s was deemed ‘world-leading’ or ‘internationally excellent’ (3* and 4*).Since our foundation, King’s students and staff have dedicated themselves in the service of society. King’s will continue to focus on world-leading education, research and service, and will have an increasingly proactive role to play in a more interconnected, complex world. Visit our website to find out more about Vision 2029, King’s strategic vision for the next 12 years to 2029, which will be the 200th anniversary of the founding of the university. For further information about King’s, please visit

Research Nurse Study Explores Birth Satisfaction

The manner in which we begin life has long been associated with how we will develop as individuals later on. Experiences with care during pregnancy, labor and birth, and the postpartum period can greatly impact a woman’s transition to motherhood as well as her mental health. Katherine Hinic, Ph.D., R.N.C., A.P.N. and an assistant professor in the College of Nursing conducted one of the first studies in the U.S. that focused on the importance of birth satisfaction in the hospital when evaluating the emotional well-being and early parenting in new mothers. Her study was published in the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing (MCN).

Challenging or unexpected birth experiences can lead to a number of issues, including difficulties with parenting and mental health issues, the latter sometimes manifesting itself as post-partum depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Hinic’s study incorporated a new research instrument developed in the U.K. based on a satisfaction scale using a ten-item questionnaire. Among some of the mitigating factors evaluated were stress levels, mother’s personal attributes, and care quality. The study group of 107 new mothers at a Level III perinatal center in NJ mirrored the population in diversity, birth type, and whether or not they were having their first baby.

The research indicated that those with higher levels of stress in their lives had more negative birth experiences. Conversely, women who were better prepared and confident had a more positive experience. Also, nursing care positively impacted the birth experience as well as early infant feeding. Efforts such as assisting the patient with breast-feeding and placing the newborn skin-to-skin with the mother greatly influenced overall satisfaction. The quality of care provided by nurses greatly influenced women’s overall perceptions of their birth experiences.

The results of this study are significant to nursing care because they identified ways in which nurses can positively influence a mother’s birth experience and early infant feeding experiences through the care they provide.

States Hinic, “Mental health is important to women, babies, and families. It was a privilege to work with these new mothers who were eager to share their experiences to ultimately impact the care that we nurses provide to other new families.”

Federal Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital Management Denies Reinstated Staff Resumption Of Duties

Management of the the Federal Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital, Uselu in Egor local government area on Wednesday refused 10 reinstated staff of the hospital to resume duties.

The 10 staff who stormed the hospital at about 9:20am and armed with the letter reinstating them from the presidency were prevented access to their offices. They had been on suspension and later dismissed in 2014. They were informed by the hospital management that it was not aware of any letter asking them to be reinstated.

There was not exchange of words between some management staff and the affected workers even as a camera hired by the embattled workers was seized.

Public Relations Officer of the hospital, Mr. Efe Stewart said the hospital was not aware of any such letter. He warned them not to enter the hospital again to cause trouble but to go back to the authorities that reinstated them.

“Their claims are unfounded. People that have criminal cases in court. One of them was very recently arraigned for a case of fraud of money belonging to Psychiatric Hospital Cooperative. A child that has been put to birth, can you abort it? As I speak with you, I am not aware of any letter. If the ministry directed that they should be reinstated, then who is Psychiatric hospital to say no. They should go back and complain to the same ministry and not coming to enter the hospital to foment trouble.”

A letter dated November 24th 2017 with reference number LA/80/15/T1/62 and signed by Director, Human Resource Management, Alhaji Halad Keana, urged the hospital management to reinstate them.

The letter titled Re: Plea for our immediate reinstatement reads; “I am directed to refer to the letter from the Deputy Chief of Staff to the Vice President, Ref No SH/OVP/DCOS/LGR&C/FMOH/208 dated 28th August, 2017 on the above subject and to convey the Ministry’s approval to the immediate reinstatement of Dr A.O.Lawan and 10 others, who were suspended/dismissed from the services of the hospital on 11th November 2014.

“You are also directed to restore the following benecita: the prompt payment of their outstanding 2013 promotion arrears, arrears of relativity and their withheld salaries up to date by virtue of Public Service Rules (PSR) 030404 (iv) which states that if confirmed than an officer is not guilty of the charge made against him/her, the rule officer shall immediately be reinstated and shall receive the full amount of his/her emoluments denied him/her while he/she was interdicted or suspended. The seniority of the officers”.

Typhoid Vaccine Injection: WHO Approves Typhoid Vaccine for Use

At the end of December 2017, WHO prequalified the first conjugate vaccine for typhoid, Bharat Biotech’s Typbar-TCV®. Typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs) are innovative products that have longer-lasting immunity than older vaccines, require fewer doses, and can be given to young children through routine childhood immunization programs. The fact that the vaccine has been prequalified by WHO means that it meets acceptable standards of quality, safety and efficacy.

This makes the vaccine eligible for procurement by UN agencies, such as UNICEF, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance.

In October 2017, the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization, which advises WHO, recommended TCV for routine use in children over 6 months of age in typhoid endemic countries. SAGE also called for the introduction of TCV to be prioritized for countries with the highest burden of typhoid disease or of antibiotic resistance to Salmonella Typhi, the bacterium that causes the disease. Use of the vaccine should also help to curb the frequent use of antibiotics for treatment of presumed typhoid fever, and thereby help to slow the alarming increase in antibiotic resistance in Salmonella Typhi.

Shortly after SAGE’s recommendation, Gavi Board approved US$85 million in funding for TCVs starting in 2019. Prequalification is therefore a crucial next step needed to make TCVs available to low-income countries where they are needed most. And even in non-Gavi-supported countries, prequalification can help expedite licensure.

WHO prequalification helps to ensure that vaccines used in immunization programmes are safe, effective, and appropriate for countries’ needs. WHO’s prequalification procedure consists of a transparent, scientifically sound assessment that includes reviewing the evidence, testing the consistency of each lot of manufactured vaccine, and visiting the manufacturing site.

Typhoid is a serious and sometimes fatal disease spread through contaminated food and water. Symptoms include fever, fatigue, headache, abdominal pain, and diarrhea or constipation. For millions of people living in low- and middle-income countries, typhoid is an ever present reality. Global estimates of the typhoid burden range between 11 and 20 million cases and between about 128 000 and 161 000 typhoid deaths annually. Poor communities and vulnerable groups, such as children, are often the most susceptible.

Urbanization and climate change have the potential to increase the global burden of typhoid. In addition, increasing resistance to antibiotic treatment is making it easier for typhoid to spread through overcrowded populations in cities and inadequate and/or flooded water and sanitation systems.
Source: W.H.O

Katsina State School of Nursing and Midwifery Gains Nursing Council Accreditation

School Of Nursing Katsina has for the first time full accreditation from Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria. This would last for five years. Part of the memo shared read:

. The college of Nursing, katsina, Katsina State is awarded full accreditation status with a yearly intake of One hundred (100) students with effect from November 2017.
. All defciencies highlighted in the report must be rectified and council notified.
. The director is to forward progress report yearly to the council unfailingly
. Please note that the full accreditation status is for a period of 5 years after which the school would be reassessed

Alh Faruk Umar Abubakar
Secretary General/Registrar

As shared by Nurse Bello Aminu who wrote on whatsapp: We are hereby great full to all our well wishers, we thank you for your usual support and all technical assistance.